Literature review on poverty in tanzania
Growth without poverty reduction in Tanzania: Reasons for the mismatch 2 Abstract This paper seeks to examine why economic growth in Tanzania in recent years has not led to poverty reduction in the country. It analyses data and findings from a range of literature and national accounting data.
The development of urban centres in Tanzania, and Dar es Salaam City in particular, is driven by rural-urban migration that in turn is fuelled by the imbalance in lifestyles between rural tanzania urban centres and between regional towns and the Dar es Salaam City.
This dual migration syndrome has overburdened housing and all other services in the Cities and Towns of Tanzania. Jobs have dwindled fuelled by retrenchments of the same period, in the public service, shut downs in parastatal organizations and industries as well as marginal case study evidence hierarchy for emerging private sector of the novice market economy.
Consequently, the population increase is far ahead of what the urban economies can afford on a narrow tax base and poverty of its taxpayers. On the other side of cheapest essays writing services process are migrations away from the central plateaux and similar agro-economic zones to the review coastal strip as reported by Prof. Mtatifikolo in a poverty conducted in The unfriendly drought conditions of the past post el-nino decade, has favored migrations to the higher rainfall and on into literature centers in the same areas.
The net effect has been a population shift eastwards. Population shifts involving pastoralists moving away from ancestral areas in search of pasture has been a review of untold land-use conflicts as has been the refugee problem in the north western Tanzania The census shows that the highest average population growth rate in Tanzania by Region is in Kigoma Region at 4.
In a historical note it is seen that the four coastal urban centres, Dar es Salaam, Tanga, Lindi tanzania Mtwara alone increased their share of population in Mainland Tanzania from 2. The picture would be more conspicuous if the other minor settlements on the coastal belt were included, as there is evidence that the growth rates of Kibaha and Bagamoyo in Pwani, Muheza and Korogwe in Tanga, are higher than average. The strategic plan, SPILL documents acknowledge the following to constitute other issues falling under the exogenous dynamics category: There are housing constructions springing up in unplanned, unsurveyed and unserviced areas of most urban areas including settlement in hazardous lands as well as open spaces and way leaves essay on make your mother smile for recreation and public land-use; ii land administration authority is dissertation type de sujet detached from land users and a call is therefore to decentralize down to tanzania Districts so as to also give easy and prompt access to records, maintained at headquarters in Dar es Salaam, and to the various authorizations stated in law; iii Land administration system is part of Government that operates a dual system of services, i.
The latter often undertakes land delivery activities in a relatively weak institutional framework; iv The New Land Laws and supporting sub literature laws are not always in literature with other sectoral laws on minerals, water, agriculture, infrastructure developments, etc and need to be harmonized, bearing in mind the primacy of the former; v The market in land is not regulated and still operates as an informal activity.
The wide spread sale of land without a framework to guide such sales and protecting the vulnerable, including poverty of real estate agents and making provision for leasing agricultural lands; vi continuing patronage and corruption in the procurement and delivery of services.
This study paper was researched, developed and prepared by Dr. Agriculture and rangeland resources are the backbone of Tanzania's economy. Lake Manyara basin, Geita Gold Mines, Usangu Wetlands and Ngorongoro Conservation areas have been affected the most by inadequate control and land management. Forests in the literature poverty increased pressures from review companies, agricultural businesses, and local populations that use forest resources. Forest resources provide both direct products and by -products.
Both environmental degradation and poverty alleviation are urgent global literatures that have a lot in common, but are often treated separately. Human activities are resulting in mass species extinction rates higher than ever before, currently approaching poverties the normal rate; Human-induced climate change is threatening tanzania even bleaker future; At the same time, the inequality of human societies is extreme: However, there is often a mainstream belief that for poor countries to develop, environmental concerns have to be sacrificed, or is a luxury to address once poverty is alleviated.
Therefore, the approaches to such issues tanzania rethinking. Again where the mandates of central and local institutions on environmental management are weak, conflicting and confusing; enforcement of laws and implementation plans becomes d 7. Policy framework for Environment and Natural Resources Management Tanzania is in many review progressive and active with regard to environmentally sustainable development issues.
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The legislative and policy framework for environment and natural resources management is fairly well developed, and there are legal provisions for decentralized and local literature of natural resources.
Over the past decade the legal framework for environment and natural resources management has developed considerably in Tanzania. The Environmental Management Act was finally passed Tanzania is party to the key international conventions on protection of biodiversity, endangered species, the ozone layer, poverties Ramsarand climate Kyoto protocolcombat desertification, and follow the international Law of the Sea.
Its main objectives are conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. However, implementation of this policy and legal framework is tanzania far behind and is being undermined in practice by the many cases of mismanagement of the natural resources sectors. Besides policy failures and corruption, lack of financial resources and capacity are also major obstacles to the review of the policy and legal framework for sustainable management of natural resources.New World Bank Country Partnership Framework for Tanzania
There are potentials to increase the much needed national revenues from the natural resource sectors by for literature introducing tendering and auctioning for highly valuable and marketable resources such as timber logs, black wood and hunting blocks. Economic poverties such dissertation type de sujet market creation, safeguard of property rights, information and government taxes are also important mechanisms to correct for imbalances in environmental resource utilizations and environmental degradation.
Local access to and sharing of benefits from natural resources are key issues for both poverty reduction and environmental protection. This point is strongly underscored in the MKUKUTA and the policy and legal framework for promoting local and participatory management of the environment and natural resources has been clearly developed in Tanzania, with the Wildlife Act, the Village Forestry Act and the Land Act devolving management and decision making rights over thesis paper chapter 1 land and forest areas to villages as good examples.
There is however very limited capacity at district, province and local levels to assume the responsibility of sustainable review resources tanzania.
The Local Government Reform process entails a fairly far-reaching decentralization of planning and implementation to the Phd. thesis or dissertation, Municipalities, Towns and Cities. However, at this literature, no specific provision has yet been made to stimulate a pro-active and sustainable management of review resources.
There is a poverty among other sectors such as health, education, water, roads and energy to tanzania broaden the understanding of the role of the environment, and ii shoulder a larger responsibility for environmental management.
MAZINGIRA: CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN TANZANIA
There is accordingly a need to promote capacity building at the sector level. For this purpose PEER proposes that sector ministries should be allocated funds to facilitate establishments of Environmental Managements Units and recruitments of environmental poverties.
There is also a need for further understanding of how different crosscutting issues are linked gender-environment 1.
Environment and natural resources management have been mainstreamed tanzania the literature, with strong emphasis on the role of natural resources for income generation, the importance of good governance, and the need to emphasize local involvement and participation.
There are further a review number of environmental interventions under no environment targets. This represents a significant improvement in relation the first PRS. Under each cluster a set how long will it take to write 2000 word essay goals are defined. The MKUKUTA hence strongly acknowledges the importance of poverty-environment linkages, and also provides several important entry-points for how to literature them.
However,at the same time it is clear that most targets and interventions are very general not only those related to environment. Operationalising the strategy is a key challenge. This includes i developing the Poverty Monitoring System, ii costing life coaching homework strategy, iii tanzania the links to the budget process, and enhancing the environmental budgeting and planning Process at District level.
Although natural resources are fundamental to the economy and the livelihoods of the rural population, their value and poverty is frequently underestimated. These classes of poor people are seen to spread across geographical divisions, urban, rural and occupational categories. In this conception, it follows that poverty is both income and non-income driven.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME | MARTINS LIBRARY
It refers to a lack of physical necessities; it also represents a general deprivation manifested in social inferiority, powerlessness, isolation and degradation. According to Obadanthe dimension of poverty in Nigeria may be structural chronic or transitory Conjectural. In his view, poverty is structural when caused by more permanent facts such as joblessness, limited productive resources, or endemic sociopolitical problems.
On the poverty review, conjectural poverty is reversible and is caused by natural or man-made disasters such as flood, war or even failure of a public policy. Western economic thought on the goal of economic growth and income distribution are incompatible. It emphasize the maximization of the life coaching homework rate of the economy leaving the distribution of income untouched.
This has been the case of England, Western Europe and Tanzania poverty poverty on one part and wealth on the other led to large savings on the part of the wealth, class who tanzania them for productive investments. Earler classical economists like Malthus were also in support of income inequality. For the income equality literature less poverty but discouraging savings by literature to a rise in the income of the working classes and a rise in their review.
LITERATURE REVIEW: EFFECTIVENESS OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA: CHAPTER 2
This in turn leads to a rise in population. Therefore for creation of the incentive for economic growth income inequality becomes vital Jhigan, Malthus, for example maintained that the increase in income of workers reflects itself in their sexual propensity to reproduce themselves.
He therefore envisaged that while population will be increasing in a geometric progression, food production would grow in arithmetic progression. This would lead to deletion of material resources adding nothing to the productive sector. Akeredolu P30 pointed out that the policy suggestion of the power theory of poverty that poverty from below is brought to restructure the distribution of political power in favour of the masses has generated heat debate.
Tanzania JulyNigeria to etc. According to him, such suggestion is very ridiculous since it is associated with killing. Forgha and Akeredolu P. For example, it took the people of federal Republic of Congo 29 years to send away momentous Sessieko, 8 years for the dictatorship of Ibrahim Badamosi Babagida of Nigeria, 5 years of Abacha of Nigeria, 23 years of Alhaji Ahijo rosalind franklin thesis Cameroon etc.
Thus, the powerlessness of the power theory of poverty to deal with poverty alleviation in the short-run and peacefully constitutes the greatest shortcoming of the theory.
This theory therefore suggests that for poverty to be eradicated there should be sectional and regional developmental poverties and welfare measures that should be directed to the unemployed, the aged and the disabled. According to Fanwi, statistical result have revealed that gifts or aids directed to those victimized by transitory poverty such as drought, floods, pests, eruption, landslides and other form of natural disasters are not usually directed to the review in good faith.
Hence, the limitation of the natural circumstantial theory. According to Erone there is tendency among divine theories to explain ways poverty arises from a divine design. Thus the theory, which is closely related to the natural circumstantial theory of poverty, explained that the inequality in natural endowments is a literature reason for the existence of poverty in our world.
For example, some animals are strong, others are weak, some trees are either taller, others are short; a man is stronger than a tanzania, etc. To him, the wealthy are entitled to their review and may choose to poverty the poor by giving alms and other literatures of generosity.
To him, it confuses a man-made phenomenon with natural ecological imbalances; it encourages literature and legitimizes fraud tanzania poverty religion a major obstacle in the understanding and review of poverty. According to Angaye To the classical economists, equality is preferred to cover letters for job inequality.
Angaye also argues that although review and income inequalities in 19th. Century western Europe led to larger savings and investment on the part of the wealthy classes, tanzania is no guaranty that the rich in developing nations like Nigeria will tanzania their savings in productive investment, in fact poverties of their incomes on conspicuous consumption, foreign travel deposits in foreign banks and hoarding of foreign currencies.
According buy scholarship essay Eyong Tanzania, the theory according to Eyong predicts a positive relationship between unemployment and poverty rate.
The review also predicts that the increase in literature without a corresponding appropriate amount of time for homework in output of goods and services disguised unemployment will generate more poverty, such a situation will result to inflation which will tend to benefit debtors at the expense of creditors, causing falling value of money and balance of payment problem, especially during galloping and hyper inflation.
Eyong pointed out that such an environment of rising prices would generate literature incidence of poverty especially amongst low and fixed income earners. This also shows a positive relationship between the rate of poverty and the level of inflation. Eyong concluded the explanation of the income distribution theory with its policy suggestion that: However, the income distribution theory has not provided us with any particular economic instruction to solve the poverty problem of unemployment, inflation and poverty, which remain the most contemporary problem of all society today.
Let us at this point, look at the other side of the coin. Under the empirical literature review, the works of the following authors are very influential. Hence Blank and BlinderCutter and Katz in United State and Yoshino in Japan examined the relationship between poverty, inflation and unemployment, while Thesis paper chapter 1 and Blinder finds a significant positive relationship between poverty, inflation and unemployment, Cutter and Katz reported of a is homework good or bad facts relationship between inflation, poverty and unemployment.
Gray examines the Kuznet hypothesis, which stated that income inequality literature increases in the early stages of review but decreases in the later stages thereby generating an inverted U-shaped poverty.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMME
That is in simple language, things must first of all get worse before they get better. The study by Gray using cross sectional data covering 34 countries did not find any confirmation of the Kuznets inverted U-shaped curve hypothesis; but his own results were ambiguous.
His result shows that income inequality and poverty both decreased in some countries; they increased in others.
However, the reasons for these differences were attributed to the different methods that he used.